What can you learn while comparing two DNA kits on GEDmatch Genesis to assist in your genetic genealogy research? Discover the changes that occur when you match cousins of a known common ancestor, a parent-child, and a family with endogamy.
As genealogists, we research how people are related to us or related to other people. With DNA, we can actually see how people might be related to us as far as which families or common ancestors without even knowing anything about that other person’s family tree.
To do this, we need to have some matches that we already know how they’re related to.
GEDmatch Genesis Has A Cool Tool for Comparing Two Kits
Previously, I’ve invited you to check out the GEDmatch Genesis tool that can reveal if your parents are related. I’ve also explained the One-to-Many tool. This post talks about a tool that can help you filter if you know the common ancestor you share with a close relative.
For instance, if you have close family members like first cousins or second cousins and have identified which grandparents or great-grandparents they descend from, you can start to classify your matches of people related through your common ancestors. To do this, we’re going to use a tool on GEDmatch Genesis.
There is a tool called “People who match both, or 1 of 2 kits in the DNA applications.” Follow these steps to utilize the feature.
Step 1: Have Two Kit Numbers Ready
You need two kit numbers, such as yourself and one other known relative. I used my cousin. We’re related through dad’s side.
Step 2: Enter the Kit Numbers
On the “People who match both, or 1 of 2 kits” tool, you enter the two kit numbers next.
Step 3: Set Thresholds
GEDmatch will ask you to define your threshold. Initially, I’m not gonna change those basic thresholds.
Step 4: Press “Display the results.”
Click on the words “Display the results” to activate the “People who match both, or 1 of 2 kits” tool.
“People who match both, or 1 of 2 kits” In Action
Notice how the kit numbers segment the data for shared matches
What Genesis has done is it searched through my DNA matches and compared my match list with my cousin’s match list. Then the program compiled the information into one listing.
DNA Kits That Match Both People
You will see the first set of columns going to be the information about me, how much shared DNA, and the largest segment.
The next set of columns details the amount for my cousin. You will see different numbers in these columns that the first columns, which belong to.
I recognized my dad’s kit (the fourth row in the table). In the two columns, you will see that I match him at 3,500 centimorgans. My cousin matches him at about 1,800 centimorgans. That makes sense because my dad would be my cousin’s uncle.
On this page, this first list identifies DNA kits we both match. Since I know we’re related through my paternal grandparents, then all of the DNA matches will be related through that line. Therefore, I don’t need to search for my family tree on my mother’s side.
Section DNA Kits That Match Only the First Kit
As you scroll down the results page of “People who match both, or 1 of 2 kits,” the next section identifies people that only match me, and not my cousin.
One of the mistakes that people make here is that they assume that if a kit only matches you, not both of you, then these kits are exclusively related through my mother’s line. That is NOT the case in every instance. Many kits that only match me will be relatives through my mother’s side.
At the same time, some of these matches will be matches through my father’s line. The only distinction is that I match DNA with them while my cousin doesn’t.
DNA Kits That Match Only the Second Kit
Scroll further, and you will see the third section.
This section identifies kits that match my cousin but not me. Again, this doesn’t mean that these people will not match my paternal grandparents. I could be missing the DNA segment that my cousin shares with this match even though we’re all related through the same common ancestor.
A Quick Review of DNA Inheritance
When you match third cousins to more distant cousins, you don’t share DNA with all of those cousins. You only share DNA with about
90% of your third cousins
45% of your fourth cousins
15% of your fifth cousins
Many of these people may be on the list of matches only to my cousin with whom I’m still related. I don’t share DNA with them.
How Does Comparing Two Kits on GEDmatch Genesis Help Your Research?
This “People who match both, or 1 of 2 kits” tool can be handy, particularly for people who don’t have Tier 1 access. If you have tested one of your parents and transferred their DNA to GEDmatch, you can phase the matches on your DNA.
When a change the kits compared from my cousin to my mom, I get different results. When comparing myself to my cousin, I was focused really on the matches both kits because all of those matches will be through my father’s line.
When comparing my mother’s DNA and mine, I will focus on the list of matches that match me but don’t match my mom. These kits have to match through my father’s line. This list will be the most useful, particularly if I don’t have one of your parents' DNA.
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Experiment with the Thresholds Comparing Two Kits on GEDmatch
After you have started to sort your matches based on other known relatives, you can start playing with those thresholds and see what additional information you can pick up. There are two thresholds to explore.
Largest Segment Threshold
The first focuses on the largest segment. This is how big of a segment does somebody have to have to call a match. You may share a lot of DNA with someone, but if it’s all in tiny segments, the tool might not call the match.
Typically, I leave this threshold at 10. Occasionally, I will decrease the threshold to about seven if I have a large family. For smaller families, you might want to increase this number a little bit.
Total Matching Segments Threshold
The threshold I adjust the most frequently is the total matching segments. This threshold examines all the segments you match with and how much cm you have to share to call this a match.
For instance, I may have a large segment of ten, but maybe I want to look at matches that share at least 30 percent.
This threshold is valuable for families that have endogamy. In such cases, you have so much shared DNA, and a lot of that may be in just little segments. The higher you set your total matching segment threshold, the more you will eliminate some of those matches who may discover you very distantly related. For a further explanation of this tool and how it applies to endogamous families, watch the video.
Watch this video.
Comparing Two DNA Kits on GEDmatch Genesis Helps You Classify Your Match Results
Comparing the two kits tool on GEDmatch Genesis is a great way to help narrow down your matches and start to classify people into different family groups. If any of your relatives have already tested, use their kits combined with yours to see how your other matches might be related to you.
If you have any questions about using this tool, put them in the comments for this post.